Uwe Christian Plachetka /
Information Based Agriculture







Correlation of traditional civilizations and biodiversity of Staple crops


These are the "Vavilov centers". The biodiverse agriculture here is
  • Fingerprint of the so-called "Neolithic Revolution"
  • Genetic reserve for crop improvement
Travel map of Peru

Cultural provisions for Vavilov centers
  • Ethnic groups according to their cultural traditions.
  • Conserving traditional cultures of minzu as vivid units.
  • Conserving the original technology of the first plant developers.
Comments concerning the stations of the travel

Cusco or Qosqo in Quechua

Cusco, imperial capital of the Inca Empire. Legendarz founder: Manco Capac.

  • Site of interest: Sacsayhuaman, Qenco, Tambo Machay, Puca Pucara on a sustainable trip (by horse with guides)
  • Haucaypata as the Plaza Mayor del Cusco - the center of the Inca Empire.
Next day: First Highlight: Moray

Moray, the center for land race development

The studied area is situated in the Maras plains (Pampa de Maras) in the peasant community de Mullakas-Mismay, situated at the North-East of the Maras district, Urubamba province, Department of Cusco. Geographically it is located 13°20’05’’ S, 70° 40’ 09’’ W on 3560 meters above sea level. [From p. 06: The archaeological complex of Moray is situated at 3560 meters above sea level at 34 km NW from Cusco representing the life-zone “prickly subtropical low mountain steppe”). In this zone the average annual bio-temperature oscillates between 17.7 °C max and 12.8°C min. The total rainfall is 607mm max and 425 mm min]. …

Geographic description of the site

Seen from a geological point of view the site is situated in the frontier of the Andes with the Altiplano geomorphologic structure of maritime origin (Yuncaypata) with a sequence of limestone, iron oxide (limonitas), sandstone etc. … …

The Moray site has to seasons with sharp differences:
  1. . The dry season allows only some desert herbs to grow
  2. . The rainy season has its maximum intensity in January and continues until the midst of April. During this period the vegetation changes profoundly.
Historical context

The presence of pre-hispanic social groups in the “sacred valley of the Incas” and in the surroundings of Maras is affirmed by some archaeological sites determined by the aspect (archaeological excavation site) Paqallamoqo belonging to the formative stage of Andean cultural development. Next step: Pottery of the Middle Horizon as fragments of Wari and Qotakalli in the vicinity of the archaeological zones of Cuevarnoqo, Intiwatana, Wañun Marka and the quebrada (ravine) of Kachirakay (Salinera – the salt pans) with many tombs of rectangular and circular shapes.

Just before the rise of the state of Cusco social groups organized in chiefdoms and confederations inhabited the region. The most important of them are the Kuyusuyus and Ayarmakas. They had a relatively vast territory including Chinchero, Maras, Soqma, Ollantaytampu and the ravine of Patakancha and the surroundings. One of the most important sanctuaries of the Late Intermediate Period was the Aywayro Cheqoq which is a mountain with rocks on its top next to Maras.

As the chapel of T’iobamba, which is of colonial origin, these sacred sites were established on the sacred zones of inter-zonal exchange between the ecological zones and regions. Here the interchanges of the Altiplano and the “sacred valley of the Incas” were predominant. This interchange circuit concerned maíz and sal with coca and other products of the tropical forests to be interchanged with wool, conserved meat (ch’arki) and other products of the Altiplano still existing but now in decadence.

The conflicts between the early Incas and the Ayarmakas have been a key factor for the emerging Inca state. The Incas eventually conquered the Ayarmakas who were about to develop their own state as well but the Incas truncated their social evolution. After having destroyed a part of the installations of the (now) sacred valley of the Incas and its surroundings the Incas organized and backed the construction of large productive infrastructure at the banks of the Vilcanota River. To enlarge the cultivable lands they built terraces and hydraulic systems for the mass-production of maize in an intensive way. The same way they built a large amount of Qollcas (state-run deposits for food and other products), roads and urban settlements with administrative, economic and ideological functions.

During its consolidation the state of Cusco, this is to say, the pre-imperial Tawantinsuyu organized and helped the mechanization of agriculture and pasture as well as astronomy, calendar-making and other aspects reserved as exclusive competences of the Inca state for the management of the ecologic heterogeneity. The territorial dependency of the ecological zones and the necessity to specialize the agricultural production in each zone made the Inca state realizing a special infrastructure for research and experiments to standardize some key products such as maize, coca and others to adapt them to several ecological zones and to overcome territorial and ecologic obstacles. Our conclusion is that Moray is a project to meet these requirements.

The chronicler Felipe Guaman Poma de Ayala mentions that: The 3rd Inca Lloque Yupanqui…

EL TERZERO INGA, Lloqui Yupanqui Ynga: Tenía su guaman chanbi [porra del halcón] en la mano derecha y su rrodela en la ysquierda y su llauto (a) de colorado y su masca paycha y su manta de amarillo, la camegeta de las dos partes de morado, en medio tres betas de tocapo (b) y dos ataderos en los pies.

Y conquistó al pueblo de Maras al Ynga Tocay Capac, al quien le quebró dos dientes de fuera a su padre Cinche Roca, y demás que tenía ganado su padre.

(Ms: Foj:97[97]) Here the text is taken from the On-Line edition of the “Primer Nueva Coronica y Buen Gobierno” by the royal library of Denmark where the original manuscript is stored : http://www.kb.dk/elib/mss/poma/ . According to Guaman Poma there were Tocay Capac and Pinagua Capac chiefs of Maras ,which was one of the origin site of the Incas.

Maria Rostworowski realized a study on the Ayarmakas mentioning an ancient site of supreme importance to the Ayamakas whose description can be interpreted as a reference on Moray by its name: Huacca of the Ayamakas.

Next station: Ollantaytampu
Place of the Inca`s Illiade, we`ll continue from there to Machu Picchu

Next station: Machu Picchu

Famous Inca city discovered by Hiram Bingham.It was never destroyed and is therefore a must.

Next Station: Pisaq

Having come back to Cusco, a wonderful day trip to Pisac will explain us

  • A typical case for ecologically designed Inca Cities
  • A present indigenous project to reconstruct a Vavilov center for potatos ("el jardìn de las papas"). The same ethnic groups are involved in both cases.
Active promotion of self-organized ecological tourism

This is the area we will see in Puno and the Titicaca Lake (bus trip from Cusco to Puno)

Urus and Quechuas on the Lake Titicaca

The Urus had been a marginalized people on the Lake Titicaca since the Tiwanaku Empire. Now they are making many by boat transport of tourists to Amantani where Quechua farmers are renting basic rooms for tourists and offer a program.

Traditional dwelling on the lake, but the tourists will be transported by motorboats

This is a two-day program to see Taquile with the museum of indigenous tourism autonomy.

Arequipa and Cañon de Collca

A provincial Moray perhaps still in use will device data on how to make a folk`s version of the Moray technology. These sites are hardly known, we will get by bus from Arequipa to Yamque and then we`ll walk to the site facing (the explored) andenes de Coparaque. It is a hypothesis that their maize varieties were developed there.

You will be furnished with detailed information by Uwe Christian when we are there.