Liliana InglÚs






Keynote Speaker:


Original Speech translated from LilianaHimeldaMu˝ozVillar/EjemplosPracticosdelosTICS

Facts concerning the New Information and Telecommunication technologies for rural education in Peru

The access to the radial television channels, transmitters, the periodic premises and nationals, the facility of transport means, has improved the highways, in the countryside near the city. In the different governments we have been witnesses who have given priority to the road construction and the connection of the electrical light in countryside that our settlers lived years without these services.

All the countryside of the country are not even favored of these means, the countryside near the city are benefitted with the technology, communication and information. the communitarian access to Internet, telephones and public.

In addition they are in process of urbanization of the field, the agricultural earth are destined for urban aims, the influence of the city is growing to huge steps. Unlike the rural districts of the country, that are remote of the city less are favored in the telecommunications, by the distance and the cost of the installation, because he is more expensive by the geography of the zone, the houses are dispersed in some zones still do not count on the electrical light.

The globalizaci├│n allows to the access to the information and communication us of the new technologies as it is the access to the Internet, is allowing us to be part of her, connecting to us with the entire world. Previously this service was single for a small group of high class or average.

As much the World Bank and the PNUD have insisted that this service, must be favored the great majorities of low economic resources, in special the countryside of the countries developing, fomenting the fairness and the diminution of the social inequalities. Access to the opportunities, the knowledge and the information considered like a tool to the service of the development of capacities of the great majorities.

The education is essential in the learning of the use of the Internet. It is evident that the educative institution specially is called to assume the process of development of these capacities, but its single function will be effective if it responds adecuamente to the expectations of the immersed students in the challenges of the present society. The opportune performance of the professor-tutor in the scholastic scene is one of the keys for the total unfolding of the capacities of the students and guarantee of the educative effectiveness.

The rural education of the country crosses by a series of difficulties like: suitable infrastructures neglected by the State in their majority were not constructed by the community, do not count on pedagogical materials, an austere library, with desactualizados books, educative programs nonagreed with our reality, the lack of vocation on watch of the professors, the scholastic desertion as much of profesor(a) as the pupils, One of the obstacles of alumn@s to continue with their secondary studies is the pregnancy to early age, the agricultural and cattle workings, as he is sembrio and the care of the cattle or the lack of economic resources of his parents. In most of the schools and rural schools of the country, they have been believed possessing of all the valid knowledge and have excluded from his borders of local a saberes. The rural lack of identity of los(as) maestros(as) in their majority is looking for to leave their goal is the city before the centralism of the country, are very rare the occasions in which or the professor goes to the field by their own will.

Hern├?ín Fernandez, in its tests on the educative problem, mainly states that the education in Peru in the rural world, confronts the limitations imposed by the poverty of the families farmers and the sequel that this one generates in the health and nutrition of the children and young people in scholastic age, conditions who prevent or make difficult the learning and to that there would be to indicate like the causes of the desertion and repitencia. (Fernandez, 1982, 1983, 1984). This confirms Amartya Sen (2000) and says that the nonsingle poverty is the lack of income but also the deprivation of basic capacities.

Before a pay that does not compensate its basic necessities of los(las) profesores(as) of our country, being the more vulnerable countryside in many cases profesores(as) must reside in the place where they teach. In years back the preoccupation of the previous governments to diminish the high rates of illiteracy, has not been successful because a percentage of analfabetos(as) in the considered countryside in extreme poverty of the country even exists, like: Puno, Cuzco, Huancavelica, Ayacucho and Apurimac. Before a delay of the land, the nonyield of the agricultural activity that entails that million families decide on the diversification of economic activities like: commerce, carpentry, masonry, textileria, zapater├şa, etc. The temporary migrations or definitorias to intermediate cities, the capital of the country or the foreigner. She is one of the strategies of sobreexperience of campesinos(as) as opposed to the poverty in which they live.

Although there is no solution before the presented/displayed problems, as opposed to the present situation of the rural education. The telecommunications continue advancing in the countryside of the country. Being attractive for the young population the access to the Internet.

In spite of the inequalities in the regions referring to the socioeconomic levels, of the rear area and in special in the countryside. Socioeconomic levels C, D and E, have difficulties to acquire the purchase of a PC. Before this situation, most of the citizens they look for economic alternatives to accede to Internet, as it is the access to the cabins of Internet, with tariffs reaches of the pockets. The use of considered Internet as a transcendental impulse for the decentralization, in the case of our country the cabins of Internet as much in the urban and rural zones, is an element that allow to the access to the Internet, diminishing the exclusion breaches and social inequality front to which they have. In spite of this high percentage of rural poverty exist, families farmers who are in extreme poverty, do not have economic resources to cover their basic necessities, being a limitation to the right to the elementary education that does not allow the access them to the Internet.

The facility of the access of the Internet in the countryside occurs through FITEL (Investment fund in Telecommunications) that pilot in telecommunications promoted by ONG and other communities subsidizes to initiatives of development of projects. Between its primary targets is the masificaci├│n of the access to Internet through cabins (telecentros) in all the rural capitals of district of the country, with incidence in the programs of qualification and promotion of the development of local contents.

The government of Toledo impelled the Huascaran Project, the 16 of November of the 2001, whose purpose was: the access to Internet to the schools and schools of the countryside and urban. For it the government cost 22 million dollars to buy 7,000 new computers and soon cost 255 million dollars, being a really important effort for the Peruvian economy. I look for to extend within reach of Internet by all Peru, in special in the worked against zones more, like improving the quality of the education by means of the use of the TIC (technology, information and communication) in the pedagogical practices. The government has created a page Web. The Educative Vestibule Huascaran, being accessible for alumn@s of the country, of the primary and secondary level, allows the consultation of a virtual library, educative programs of different courses. Even not all the rural educative centers of the country, have been favored with this program.

Wing light of the investigations that have been made by different authors, referring to the subject of rural education and the technological advances with respect to the access to the Internet in the countryside, allows me to approach me the investigation problem about the effects of the Internet in the learning of alumn@s, of 5to of secondary of the schools of 2 of May in Annexed of Angasmayo and San Roque.

The study area is the district of Chambara counts on three telephones public, one of them is destined for international calls, this district counts on 7 annexes. Annexed of Angasmayo and Santa Rosa de Tistes they count on communitarian telephones. In some places as it is Angasmayo and the parks of the surrounded one of the district interferences exist to receive and to call to cellular. This district counts on a cabin of Internet the service is slow. The students of the district and students who study in Huancayo go to these cabins by multiple services: one of them is the communication of relatives, relatives and friends, facilitate the tasks of the students of the school and the school, messenger ensure communications with amigos(as) conocidos(as) or to know amigos(as) local, national and international level and the games in network is preferred by ni├▒os(as) the district to weigh of this advance all the annexes of Chambara does not tell on electrical light, as it is the case of Huallancayo, this to two hours of distance of the city of Huancayo, the route of the trip becomes by asphalt roads and affirmed.

This district counts on the Educative Institution Nro 300305 primary level, lamentably do not count on computers for the pupils, single wait for the good faith of the residents of Lima that promised to donate three computers, with respect to the Agro-industrial School of San Roque, for the next year offers the technical races of: Computation, Farming and Trains of Vestir. In addition they will be benefitted with the Huascar├?ín project. The students of school 2 of May of the Annex of Angasmayo do not count on cabins of Internet, use this service when they travel to the province of Chupaca or Huancayo some comment that they learned to use the Internet, when they went to work by vacations to Huancayo or Lima, saw that a better access of communication with its near relatives existed.

The learning of the students of this district, nonsingle is in the school but also in the family, the education that ni├▒o(a) of rural means receives from the community and its parents and relatives in the nuclear family and extensive-so much through the treatment who occurs him, like of the knowledge, values and forms of behavior that they distribute to him.

Part of the study is to know if the access to the Internet in the level of learning of the students of the district of Chambara is single of information consumption, communication and diversion or stimulates the students to be technology suppliers, to take control of the technology and to turn them tools that help to operate their levels of learning.